Study programes on Master and PhD levels are research oriented and require theses to be completed. A typical master program contains lots of course work, with the second year devoted to research and thesis, plus additional courses. The PhD program in food industry engineering sets the scientific standard. This doctoral program generally emphasizes courses for 3 semesters, after which the focus switches to a research needed for dissertation. Since food industry engineers work at the interface between food materials and engineering, they must be knowledgeable in both disciplines. This mixture of engineering and food or biology is the distinguishing feature that makes food industry engineering unique among the engineering disciplines and provides the additional dimension of an understanding of life sciences.